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10 – الناسخ والمنسوخ

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وأما النسخ فمعناه1 الإزالة، يقال نسخت الشمس الظل إذا2 أزالته ورفعته،3 وقيل معناه النقل من قولهم نسخت ما في4 الكتاب أي نقلته. وحده الخطاب الدال على رفع الحكم الثابت بالخطاب المتقدم على وجه لولاه لكان ثابتا5 مع تراخيه عنه.6

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ويجوز نسخ الرسم وبقاء7 الحكم، ونسخ الحكم وبقاء8 الرسم، والنسخ9 إلى بدل وإلى غير بدل، وإلى ما هو أغلظ وما هو10 أخف.

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ويجوز نسخ الكتاب بالكتاب، ونسخ السنة بالكتاب وبالسنة،11 ونسخ المتواتر بالمتواتر، ونسخ الآحاد بالآحاد وبالمتواتر،12 ولا يجوز نسخ المتواتر بالآحاد.13

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Notes

  1. Spr. 601 has والنسخ معناه instead of وأما النسخ فمعناه . ↩
  2. When Ibn al‑Firkāḥ repeats this phrase in his comments, he says أي instead of إذا ; a later marginal note in BM 3093 corrects this to إذا . ↩
  3. In Spr. 601 ورفعته is a marginal addition. It is treated as a gloss in the Maḥallī tradition. ↩
  4. BM 3093 and SH add هذا . When Ibn al‑Firkāḥ repeats this phrase in his comments, he includes هذا according to SH, but not according to Lbg. 256 or BM 3093. ↩
  5. One of SH’s mss, Kuwait 231, has instead تابعا . ↩
  6. From this point until the beginning of chapter 12 – الإجماع there is a gap in Lbg. 256 due to six missing folios, so I will follow BM 3093. ↩
  7. Spr. 601 has instead ويبقى . ↩
  8. Spr. 601 has instead ويبقى . ↩
  9. The Maḥallī tradition has ونسخ الأمرين معا وينقسم النسخ instead of والنسخ . In Spr. 601 ينقسم is added in the margin after والنسخ . ↩
  10. Spr. 601 omits ما هو . ↩
  11. SH has instead والسنة . Spr. 601 has بالسنة instead of بالكتاب وبالسنة ; this reflects al‑Shāfiʿī’s view, abandoned by most of his followers, that the Qurʾān and Sunna cannot abrogate each other. Ibn al‑Firkāḥ’s matn, however, undoubtedly includes نسخ السنة بالكتاب وبالسنة , for he comments on both parts.
    Al‑Maḥallī comments at this point that al‑Juwaynī has not mentioned abrogation of the Book by the Sunna, but then says that one copy of the Waraqāt adds ولا يجوز نسخ الكتاب بالسنة . Ibn al‑Firkāḥ does not include this clause in the matn he reproduces, but at this point in his commentary he says that “he decided to disallow abrogation of the Book by the Sunna” (قطع بمنع نسخ الكتاب بالسنة). (Some scribes felt this could not be al‑Juwaynī’s position, and therefore changed the text: a ḍamma has been added by a later hand above the qāf in BM 3093 to make قطع passive, and one of SH’s mss, Kuwait 231, adds قوم after قطع .) Since Ibn al‑Firkāḥ is generally scrupulous about reproducing al‑Juwaynī’s words even when he disagrees with them, it seems most likely that this is not his paraphrase of something in the matn, but his interpretation of al‑Juwaynī’s conspicuous silence about the Sunna abrogating the Book. This does not necessarily follow, however, from what al‑Juwaynī does say, especially since he allows naskh al‑mutawātir bi‑l‑mutawātir. In his Burhān (ed. ʿAbd al‑ʿAẓīm al‑Dīb, vol. 2, pp. 1307 and 1311) he allows naskh al‑kitāb bi‑l‑sunna al‑mutawātira. ↩
  12. At this point Spr. 601 adds ويجوز نسخ الكتاب بالسنة . This fits poorly at this point in the text, and is difficult to reconcile with Spr. 601’s conspicuous omission of abrogation of the Sunna by the Book, but does agree with al‑Juwaynī’s position in his Burhān (see the previous note). A marginal note, partly unreadable, appears to suggest لعلّه ولايجوز , which would agree with the textual variant mentioned in al‑Maḥallī’s commentary, in SH’s editorial note 2 on p. 223, and in the modern commentary of ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ṣāliḥ al‑Fawzān, pp. 92 and 94. Both the positive addition and the more widespread negative addition were probably early attempts to make explicit what al‑Juwaynī deliberately left unsaid. ↩
  13. Spr. 601 adds لأن الشيء [ينسخ] بمثله أو بما هو أقوى منه . Cf. the matn in the commentary of ʿAbd Allāh al‑Fawzān, p. 92. ↩
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Source: http://waraqat.vishanoff.com/a/a10/