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12 – الإجماع

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وأما الإجماع فهو اتفاق علماء أهل العصر على حكم الحادثة، ونعني بالعلماء الفقهاء، ونعني1 بالحادثة الحادثة الشرعية. وإجماع هذه الأمة حجة دون غيرها لقوله عليه وسلام لا تجتمع أمتي على ضلالة،2 والشرع ورد بعصمة هذه الأمة. والإجماع حجة على العصر3 الثاني وفي أي عصر كان.4 ولا يشترط انقراض العصر على الصحيح، فإن قلنا انقراض العصر شرط يُعتبر5 قول من ولد في حياتهم وتفقه وصار من أهل الاجتهاد، ولهم أن يرجعوا عن ذلك. والإجماع يصح بقولهم وفعلهم6 وبقول البعض وفعل7 البعض وانتشار ذلك وسكوت الباقين عنه.

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وقول الواحد من الصحابة ليس بحجة8 في9 القول الجديد، وفي القديم حجة.

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  1. Spr. 601 omits نعني . ↩
  2. BM 3093 has instead الضلالة . ↩
  3. Lbg. 256 has instead أهل العصر , but this is likely a mistaken repetition, unique to this ms, of a phrase used shortly before. When Ibn al‑Firkāḥ explicitly quotes the matn again a few lines later, he omits أهل . ↩
  4. Ibn al‑Firkāḥ finds in his copies of the Waraqāt three variants of this sentence, which he presents in this order:
    1) والإجماع حجة على العصر الثاني وفي أي عصر كان .
    2) والإجماع حجة في العصر الثاني وفي أي عصر كان .
    3) والإجماع حجة على العصر الثاني وأي عصر كان .
    I suspect that version 1 was probably al‑Juwaynī’s original, because the other two can easily be explained as attempts to eliminate its puzzling conjunction between ʿalā (which seems to indicate which generations are bound by a consensus) and (which seems to indicate in which generations a binding consensus can be reached). Version 3 (which is also reflected in Spr. 601) says simply that a consensus in one generation is binding on the next generation and all others, but Ibn al‑Firkāḥ finds this too obvious to be worth stating. Ibn al‑Firkāḥ understands version 2 as an affirmation that any generation from the Companions onward can reach a binding consensus. Ibn al‑Firkāḥ clearly prefers this option, and makes it the basis of his commentary, because it constitutes a repudiation of the minority views that only the Companions, or the Companions and their immediate Successors, could reach a binding consensus. The second half of version 1 can be understood to affirm the same thing, but the only significance Ibn al‑Firkāḥ can find in the first half of version 1 is a premonition of what al‑Juwaynī says later about the consensus of one generation being binding on younger scholars who come of age before the passing of the original generation. Nevertheless, Ibn al‑Firkāḥ follows version 1 in his initial quotation of the matn, because most of his manuscripts have the preposition ʿalā. I suspect version 1 was indeed original, and that al‑Juwaynī meant the to be taken in the same sense as the ʿalā. ↩

  5. Spr. 601 has instead فيعتبر . In Lbg. 256 لا has been inserted before يعتبر , apparently as a later correction, but when Ibn al‑Firkāḥ quotes this sentence again there is no لا . ↩
  6. Spr. 601 has instead وبفعلهم . In Lbg. 256 ﺑ has been squeezed in as a later correction to make وبفعلهم . ↩
  7. Spr. 601 has instead وبفعل . In Lbg. 256 ﺑ has been added as a correction to make وبفعل . ↩
  8. The Maḥallī tradition adds على غيره . ↩
  9. Spr. 601 has instead على , as does the Maḥallī tradition. ↩
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Source: http://waraqat.vishanoff.com/a/a12/